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abundance A measure of the number of individuals of a given species or group of species, found in a given sample or area.
anthropogenic Referring to anything that is made by people or that results from human activity.
arboreal Tree-dwelling.
Arthropod An invertebrate animal belonging to the Phylum Arthropoda, which includes insects, arachnids, crustaceans, centipedes, and millipedes.
avifauna The composition of the bird community in a given area.
biophysical data Information about the physical environment, such as climate or amount of forest cover, that relates to the biology of a species or community, .
boreal The boreal region Ė the largest biome on Earth Ė is one of three global forest types (along with tropical and temperate). Encompassing 33% of the Earthís forests, the boreal covers 11% of its surface. Fifty per cent is located in Russia, 30% in Canada, and the balance is found primarily in Alaska and the Scandinavian countries.
brood parasite A bird that lays eggs in the nests of other birds, of the same or different species, with the result that the host bird provides parental care to the resulting offspring.
climate change Any long-term significant change in the expected patterns of average weather of a specific region. In contemporary use, the term is often associated with changes due to increases in various atmospheric gases, including CO2.
community The collection of species in a given region.
conservation plan A document that provides direction for the protection and management of a given population, species or geographic area.
Corvid Any of the birds in the Corvidae family, including: crows, jays, magpies, and ravens.
database A digital system of information which is organized so that it can be easily accessed or appended.
dataset A collection of similar or related information recorded in a common format.
delayed plumage maturation The genetically programmed delay in adult plumage acquisition until after sexual maturity, that is characteristic of several bird species.
disjunct populations A taxon or species that has two or more distinct population areas that are significantly separated from one another geographically.
distribution The geographic range of a species, or the arrangement of a species or population relative to its habitat.
diversity A measure of the number of species that occur together in space and time in a given region, often weighted by the number of individuals representing each species.
ecology The scientific study of the interactions between organisms and their environment.
ecosystem A dynamic set of organisms (plants, animals and microorganisms) all interacting among themselves and with the environment in which they live (soil, climate, water and light).
environmental assessments A process by which environmental factors are integrated into planning and decision-making processes; guided in Canada by the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act.
epaulet The area of feathers analogous to a birdís shoulder; the lesser and median coverts.
Family A taxonomic group containing one or more genera.
fledgling period Period of immaturity before†a bird†is fully feathered and capable of flight, i.e., the number of days between hatching and first flight.
fly-catching The behavior of a bird flying out from a perch and catching insects on the wing and returning to perch (see Sallying).
FRI data - digital forest resource inventories Inventories of tree cover, usually including stand composition, age and size, compiled by responsible authorities (provincial or territorial governments) or tenure holders (forestry companies) for a given area.
Frugivore Any organism that feeds mainly on fruit.
gleaning A foraging technique where food such as insects are picked from foliage, ground, bark crevices, etc.
Holarctic Occurring in the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere.
Hovering A foraging technique where a bird catches flying insects while remaining relatively stationary in mid-air, using rapid wing movements.
Insectivore Any organism that feeds mainly on insects.
Invertebrate An animal that lacks vertebrae, for example, any insect or spider.
Lores The area of feathers between a birdís eyes and bill.
Malar stripe The area of feathering that extends from the bill to below the birdís cheek.
Masting A life history strategy used by many trees, in which seeds are produced in large numbers at irregular multi-year intervals. During a masting event, all members of the species in the woodland or patch will set seed simultaneously, overwhelming the ability of seed predators to consume the entire harvest.
metadata Documentation that describes the content, quality, condition, origin, and other characteristics of data or datasets. In other words, data about data.
metrics Measurements specific to a particular attribute or area of interest.
migratory/migration The regular, often annual, movement of an individual, population or species from one region to another.
modelling, models A mathematical, physical or conceptual representation of a system or process that is difficult to observe directly. Ecological models can be used to indicate general possibilities or to forecast the most likely outcomes for particular populations or ecosystems.
monitoring The collection and analysis of repeated observations over time to identify and evaluate changes in populations, species or systems.
Monomorphic Referring to species in which male and female appear physically identical.
Morphological Pertaining to the physical shape, form and structure of an organism.
Neotropics The new world biogeographic region that includes southern Mexico, Central and South America, and the West Indies - one of eight terrestrial ecozones in the world.
New World The earth's hemisphere that includes North and South America.
Omnivore Any organism that feeds on a variety of foods including vegetation and animal matter.
Passerine Belonging to the Order Passeriformes - the largest order of birds comprising about half the known species including rooks, finches, sparrows, tits, warblers, robins, wrens, swallows, etc.
point count A common method of counting birds at a given sampling location (point) that involves a fixed observation period during which birds are recorded by sight and sound. Observation period and sampling distance may vary. Point counts have been used for sampling communities and estimating population densities in local areas, determining trends in populations over regional areas, and assessing habitat preferences.
Polygynous A breeding system in which a male mates with multiple females.
population A population is a group of individuals of the same species, occupying a defined area during a specified period of time.
predictive capability The anticipated level of accuracy of when extrapolating results from a given study.
remotely sensed data Data collected by a sensor, such as a satellite, that is not in direct contact with the area being mapped or described.
Riparian Relating to or inhabiting the banks of a natural course of water.
Rotation periods The length of time between one harvest of a forest stand and the next harvest, following regeneration.
Sallying A foraging technique where a bird flys out suddenly from a perch to catch aerial insects (see Fly-catching).
sampling protocols The procedures and techniques used to collect data.
Snag A dead tree that is still standing.
spatially referenced data Information associated with a specified geographic location.
Speciation The evolutionary process that gives rise to a new species.
Successional The progressive replacement of one dominant type of species or community by another in an ecosystem.
Superciliary The narrow band of feathering above the eyeline.
Superspecies complex True species that have diverged from a common ancestor and are non-overlapping (allopatric) in their ranges.
Sympatric Referring to species that occur in the same or overlapping geographical areas.
Understorey The layer of vegetation (shrubs, small trees or other plants) that is found beneath the canopy (and sub-canopy) of a forest.
Undertail coverts The area of feathers on the underside of a birdís rump.
variable A characteristic, number, or quantity of interest that can take on different values (vary) in different situations.